Educational Scholarship for the BYU-Idaho Undergraduate Journal

Journal Overview and Citation Practices

I am choosing to publish to the BYU-Idaho Undergraduate Research Journal. This journal is an Educational Journal that includes some English portions, but mostly looks at different parts of the classroom and very debated topics in the field including how to approach special education and the best ways to help students succeed.
The articles usually have 3000-4000 words and most of the  articles are 10-15 pages even though the requirements for the journal are 5-50 pages. Each of the papers have about 5-10 sources from other research articles.

In "The Fallacy of Full Inclusion Amoung Developmentally Disabled Students" by Rachel Jaynes a publication in 2007 one of her paragraphs states, "Many disabled students’ curriculum consists of learning to use the toilet, usage of signing to communicate, not throwing tempers, eating with utensils, etc (Sontag, 2004, p. 5). According to Giangreco (2007), if they do not receive appropriate curriculum, they are likely to get frustrated or embarrassed (p. 35). It is vital that developmentally disabled students receive the proper curriculum for their learning level."

In this paragraph she establishes a meaning of disables students curriculum clearly mapping out the exact activities that are including using Sontag. She then uses
Giangreco to elaborate on the consequences if the student does not receive instruction in the areas. After she paraphrases an experience that was also found from Giangreco that students may also encounter. Overall, the relationship between authors is to enhance on another to further prove her point that instruction is needed, and establish what exactly the instruction is addressing.

After looking at the citations used in this piece I realize that every definition of teaching and what the specific standards are need to address with a source. The source must also be accompanied with a response from the student including how it will impact the student, why, and a way to prevent of simply address that outcome. I also realized that the format of each of the paragraph is very short,and simple to read. Most of the paragraphs address one very simple thought and have one at the most two references in each of the paragraphs. The language in the journal is also very simple and just states exactly what is going on in the classroom, including the specific problem that is going on. However, the language does not become complex except for teaching terms and shortened versions of terms. Besides that, the language is concise and gives a clear picture with no embellishments.

In order to publish in this journal I need more research that actually looks at classrooms, and the practices of the classroom. Meaning what type of criticisms are most commonly used, and what are exmaples of practices or examples for activites to use in the classroom. I also need to find references from Mister Pip in order to show why it would be important or usful to include varying tactics. It would also be helpful if I found information that gave statistics as to students performing better with a more reader response approach in which students actually connect with the protagonist in the story. Some of these sources need to be schoarly work that looks at actual teaching techniques, but I also think that it is very important to include the side of the story from the protagonist in Mister Pip becuase it is that basis of why I want to teach this novel in particular differently. I will probably have at least 5 sources that include different teaching techniques and the pros and cons of these techniques. From the articles I will need to create various ways of incorperating them into my specific classroom and show how I personally would use these techniques. I will probably have ot also ended up giving a description of assignments that can actually be done in order to show how to incorperate the various techniques from the article as well.

Definition Practices

The article I choose was “How can I Teach You?” by Sheree Evans, Jenna Wilcock, Natalie Hessing and the article looks at different ways of teaching and how to teach to certain kinds of intelligences. The article is separated into the different types of intelligences, for example the first intelligence is “musical” intelligence, and it addresses the types of intelligences that correspond, eg. “kinesthetic” and “audio” portions that go along with learning while listening to music, and there is also a corresponding portion that is devoted just to addressing how a person learns to create music because there is another approach for teaching students how do that. Each of the terms though is defined at the beginning of the paragraph. When the writer presents a definition they do it by stating the idea, and then using a comma splice give a very brief definition. The only exception to this is when they are giving a larger teaching term. For example, they state that kinesthetic learners learn through actions. To further explain this there are examples that all refer back to the definition.

The overall picture is defined as a musical intelligence and from there even more specific intelligences are gone into detail in further paragraphs. Whenever a new intelligence is introduced though it is at the beginning of the paragraph and from there is going into more detail about the definition and how it is actually applied to the students and used in a classroom.

When the writer does present these definitions at the beginning of each paragraph they include the name, year, and page in the quote. For example, when talking about musical intelligence this is how it is introduced at the start of the paragraph, “The musical Intelligence includes individuals who can create or interpret music. Of all the intelligences, this is the intelligence that starts at the earliest age, though no one knows why (Gardner, 1983, pg. 99).” The same thing is done again when discussing bodily movement, “Bodily/ kinesthetic intelligence involves physical movement and using the large and fine muscles. The Large muscles include those of the arms and legs and (in a classroom) the fine muscles are fingers. These are the people that need to get up and move around and are often the squirmers and fidgeters in a classroom. They use hand gestures and body language to communicate and are good at interpreting another’s body language. Bodily/ Kinesthetic people tend to be touchy. Leslie Wilson explains that often times “they may even have a need to enter the personal space of others or to touch them while communicating” (“Gardner’s,” 2005, para. 5)” is how body movement is addressed for the first time.

Overal, the definitions stated are usually accepted. The definitions are referring back to other articles that are substantial, or actual definitions. In education there is not extensive disproving of others theories, or definitions of a theory. What is usually argued is which is the best practice. However, the paper I choose did not argue that, they simply were seeking to inform educators of the different types of learners, specifically in music education.

I believe that the definitions are being used to establish meaning, and legitimacy. I also think that by providing a definition there is also an example associated with the definition and how to approach or include these ideas into the classroom. While these meanings may not be technical or precise they do a good job of creating the situation in which most of them pertain to. This article is geared towards educators because of the use of educational jargon that is apparently clear throughout the entire piece. More so than that this piece's over arching theme is to try and show educators who are already in the field that each student does in fact learn in a different way. These were examples of the different types of learning from students with examples to connect the variations to the students currently in the classroom. This makes it so that teachers have more of an obligation to actually incorporate the different strategies. This is because the main goal was so that teachers could incorporate as many of these types into their classrooms, so that students learning was overall more successful.

Style of Dense Passages

Article 1:
The Science Education Improvement Imperative
“This lax science education was caused by rigid graduation requirements in science being replaced by courses of student choice: which typically weren’t science but rather soft classes that teach less-essential skills. If this trend of less and less of the population having an adequate form of science education continues and the division between the experts and the general public continues to grow the United States will suffer. It could even loose its reputation as a world leader in economy, technology, engineering, science, medicine, manufacturing and many other areas (Jenks 2)"
Rewrite:
The lack of science education is because of strict requirements for students to graduate, and science not being students' favorite courses, and usually electives replace it. If this pattern of less of the population having a basic form of science education continues, and the gap between the experts and general population continues to grow the United states will suffer. As a result, the country could loose its reputation as a world reading in economy, technology, engineering, science, medicine, manufacturing and many other areas.

Article 2:
The Fallacy of Full Inclusion Amoung Developmentally Disabled Students by Rachel Jaynes
“There are many who believe that inclusion creates a good opportunity for developmentally disabled children to work on the same curriculum as other kids. This may be true for a select few, but for the majority, it would be impossible..”
Rewrite:
Many people think that inclusion is the best developmentally for disabled children to work on the same class work as other students. This could be the case for a few students, but most would not be able to complete the work.

Article 3:
Gardner’s Multiple Intelligences as a Teaching Style
“Though SEDL categorizes thinking styles into general groups, it still conveys the importance of the individual. For example, the evidence shows that teaching must be flexible, able to fit any situation, and should contain a variety of instructional methods. This research promotes allowances for human differences in learning.”
Rewrite:
SEDL put general ways of thinking into separate groups, while showing how each way is important to the person using it. An example is, looking at a class a teacher must will willing to do many different activities to include as many students as possible, and should have more than one way of teaching. This research helps show the many different types of human learning and how they can all be effective.

Response
Each of these passages are summarizing large ideas that are used throughout their papers. By using the nominalizations it creates a sense of legitimacy that is expected of these academia. If the people writing these articles did not use the lingo in the field it would not be equated as to needing to be read by others in the field. If a person uses lower language that does not incorporate the proper ideas of the field, the people in the field are just going to pass by the article thinking that it is not worth their time, which would be an accurate statement. It also shows that they have a higher writing level and are able to understand and write at the same level as their sources. When readers are reading the information they are also learning the lingo in the field and will also be able to speak knowledgeably with the proper terms because the field of education is constantly changing. If a person is not up to date with the lingo in the field of education they could seriously offend others. An example of this is the word "retard",10 years ago this was a completely acceptable term. However, today if a teacher said a student was retarded both the parents and fellow staff members would be very upset, because the term is actually "intellectually disabled" and students are not disabilities, the student has a disability, a very significant difference in the field. In education it is imperative that teachers constantly read new research with proper jargon, because the jargon is constantly changing and usually people in the field have longer careers and are present longer than the terms that are used because of the evolution that is continuously going on.

General Academic Style

From “The Science Education Improvement Imperative” by Jenks
“Science education can be improved, in the first place, by changing the teaching environment found in average U.S. schools. This includes the classroom atmosphere and effective use of time for teaching and learning. Failings in this category are often a result of interruptions or disruptions during instruction and inadequate time allotment for the curriculum. Classroom disruptions often stem from poor student-teacher relationships where there is inadequate respect and discipline between students and teachers. The numerous interruptions in American schools are tied to various opinions of instructors and administrators of what is relevant use of class time. Class time is often replaced by things such as announcements, assemblies, and unnecessary interruptions. Evidence of this was found in The Third International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) which studied classroom settings and teaching methods in multiple countries world wide. TIMSS states that “lessons were halted by… interruptions in 28 percent of American lessons, 13 percent of German lessons, and zero percent of Japanese lessons” (Stigler 320). The students of both of these countries, Germany and Japan, consistently receive better ratings for science literacy than the United States. These interruptions link directly to the education that students are able to receive because of the vital time that is being wasted.”

From, “The Fallacy of Full Inclusion Amoung Developmentally Disabled Students” by
Rachel Jaynes.
From my experience in secluded classrooms, I have learned the difficulty of managing all aspects of an environment. I can remember a particular day in which my co-workers and I were working individually with our clients. One client, Aaron, was literally crying and hitting his mouth with his hand, because his staff would not feed him with hand-over-hand assistance. Aaron had the ability to feed himself and had done so in the past. He simply refused to do so. My client, Joseph, thought Aaron’s behavior was funny and set him off in into an obnoxious laughter. It was loud, and his behavior caused Brittney to rock forward and back fiercely while yelling. Other clients put their hands over their ears. Behaviors distract others in the room and trigger more behaviors in other students.

My articles are very different, and they differ even more in the selected articles because of the parts of the essay that they are taken from. In my first essay the passage is still from the beginning, so the sources are being established. In the second essay, the passage is taken from the ending, so the person writing the paper is using “I” to reflect on an experience that associates to the purpose of the essay. In neither piece the discursive I is used. Instead the authors use overall statements to include as many students and classrooms as possible. I also think that because it is an undergraduate journal, students writing in this journal do not feel qualified to use the discursive I, because the students are simply basing their information off of studies that have been done and they do not necessarily have the experience nor opinions that differ from the information. Instead if the information is presented by a professional person with statistic that create a need for change, a change can be presented, and then verified by a personal experience in a classroom. This acknowledges that it is not a proven science, but rather it is just an idea that maybe more than one student could benefit from. That is what these two pieces have in common, even though they are from different pieces, the format is the same in both pieces. Where the beginning is used as a point it bring up statistics and establish the need for some sort of change. Then an idea of change is presented, and then the piece is concluded with a personal experience of how it worked for at least one person.

Knowledge-Making Cues

In, “The Fallacy of Full Inclusion Amoung Developmentally Disabled Students” by
Rachel Jaynes. In this article it is all qualitative data. The only information that would resemble any sort of quantitative data would be the use of average. However, even the context that they are being used, the paper is referring to the “average student”, not a number created average.

None of the agentless expressions, or methodological I are used. The only time the writer is inserted into the piece is when talking about their own experiences. For example they say, “An example of hand-over-hand assistance would be my experiences with a past client of mine, Joseph. One of Joseph’s daily goals pertained to fine motor skills. I can remember many instances when we would work together on stacking interconnecting blocks. Sometimes he would do the task independently, but most of the time, he would not. In order to help him achieve his goal, I literally put each of his hands on a block and helped him grab them.” They are giving a personal example of something else that has been previous explained earlier in the paper. It is an easy way to include a personal experience, and also correlate ideas into an actually used way in the classroom. Besides this use of I though, the writer only moves from idea to idea stating that each branches off from the other. I think that this takes away from the writing though. I would like to see another side to the teacher that is not being incorporated. Personally, I know that every teacher has a different belief, and if the writer could address that idea the overall paper would grow tremendously.

An example of a modal statement from the article is, “Unfortunately, even average school buses are not fully capable in transporting disabled children”(5). This is the topic sentence of a paragraph in that is in response to a problem. Essentially it is the introduction to the idea to fix a problem. An example of limiting expression is, “Most developmentally disabled students do not have proper mental or physical capacities to ride a bike, walk, or remember to get on the bus to go to and from school. Many parents are concerned that their disabled child could get lost or become incapacitated due to seizures, the use of crutches, wheelchairs etc” as well as “Some schools leave the responsibility with parents to transport their children to school.” In both of the statements, the author is limiting the people that they are speaking about. This creates legitimacy because if they said all schools leave the responsibility with parents, all it would take is me finding one school that does not do that to prove them wrong. Versus, now I would have to go out and find all the statistics which still would not be prevalent because the author is just stating that there are schools that leave the transportation up to the parents, which is in fact true.

When it comes to the type of reporting verbs the paper is primarily in the present tense, or present progressive. The paper is presenting things that are happening in the schools currently and looking towards new ideas to fix problems in the classroom. The author never really looks back on previous things that have happened in the classroom. An example of this is, “Educators of disabled children have a demand to fulfill several roles that general teachers could not with their number of students. Teachers of special education must deliver rigorous instruction while using specialized methods of teaching. They are also required to report the progress and concerns of each disabled child to parents, administrators, therapists, and many others (Hardman, Drew, Egan, 2005, pp. 78-79). Regular instructors do not have the proper amount of time to do this” (7). The author is simply stating all the things currently going on in the classroom, and even when citing information the person is not quoted in a previous tense.

Introductions and Conclusions

In “Belonging to the Dojo: The Classroom Community of Judo” by an unlisted author from the BYU Idaho undergraduate journal the article discusses the background students have and the effect it can have on students in the classroom. The introduction goes straight to the point and simply lays out what the essay will be addressing, it says, “Motivation for a student to succeed in the classroom is a question often debated in the educational world” (2). It is apparent that this is the topic that the point the essay is going to address, however at this point it is not clear as to whether it is going to agree or deny this idea. The author is not so eager to clarify that portion, however, they are clear to establish the students that are involved being especially careful as to not say every or all students. Instead the author uses terms like: many students, may feel, and these students (referring to the ones that fit the previously stated background). The author does state that this is the first article of its type, and what it discusses as its topic.

The author brings up students and what their part in their education is. In the process the does navigate the conversation so she is able to lead the reader to the conclusion that students need a more active role in their education. This conversation of students and their role in their education does not start right away in the paper, rather after all the definitions. It makes sense that the author does this because she is able to use her definitions that have been established in the paragraph before. However, it makes it difficult to realize the purpose until three paragraph in. At that point the authors intentions and stances on the topic that was presented become more clear by using the terms that have been defined.

In the conclusion there seems to be an extensive use of ’if”. As in, “if” students from this community can be accepted, then this community will be establishing. But “if” this does not happen then there will be a gap. In some ways, it seems like it may be a moralizing statement because it is sort of calling an action, but it certainly is not directly. Rather, it seems to give the reader a sort of choice that would seem like a separate type of moralizing statement. If it were a moralizing statement of sorts, I would say that it is directed to teacher because it talks about an involvement that is created in the classroom because of an acceptance that would also happen in the classroom, if it were to happen. Considering that teacher usually have the most control over this leads me to believe that it is addressed to the teachers.

Summary of Good Academic Writing in BYU-Idaho Undergraduate Journal

My Original paper was a response to reading Mister Pip in British Literature Part 2, it was the last piece, and the last response that our class was going to have for the semester. The ironic portion was this section of the novel challenged the entire format of the semester and if we actually learned anything. The protagonist essentially devalued the entire structure of a classroom in which the professor went to the front of the room and lectured on what they deemed as important. The professor then asked the class, what does this say about the entire semester? The class knew the answer but was afraid to say it aloud. Our class was essentially a waste of time and energy because we had not come to our own understandings. This made me question, is there a way to show students what is important, but have them develop relationships with the text in order to enhance their reading and comprehension.

In the BYU-Idaho undergraduate journal there are many different theories being applied in various ways in order to reach as many students as possible. This is done by the article stating the problem or situation that is going on in the schools. Then a method that could address this, and be a solution. The articles then apply this idea and show how it could be utilized and then finish with a personal recap in which a particular student has benefited from the new or varied method of teaching.

I have tried to emulate this style of brings up what usually goes about in the classroom, the stating why reader reponse theory may add to this traditional idea. I apply it by bringing in Mister Pip. I am then able to give examples of how it hepled the main character of Mister Pip because I do not have any personal experience myself, but the protagonist in the piece is extremely vocal, and actually able to fully articulate opinions on how both theories ave effected her.

Questions For Rough-Draft

What portions need more/ less clarification?
What aspects need more/less clarifications for definitions?
Does the "flow" of the paper work?
Does there need to be more/less explanation when it comes to Mister Pip?
Do the ideas clearly go back and forth from Mister Pip to the Reader Response?
Is there anything else that should be added in to help the argument?

Education Week

I choose Education Week, an organization that has both an online and printable editions of editorials, opinions, and other resources for teachers. This is aimed for educators K-12, and is specifically for teachers, but administrators, or other individuals in the classroom could also benefit from it. It is expected that a person has the education to be a teacher if they are using this information because of the topics, and language that is being used. For example, terms like ELL, IEP, 504, things of that nature. In describing the history and motto of the website and magazine the description is stated as, "The hybrid approach also characterizes EPE’s offerings for teachers, who have a lively forum for news, information, advice, and opinion on the Teacher channel of edweek.org, while also receiving a mix of articles and useful directory listings in the twice-yearly Teacher Professional Development Sourcebook".

I found an article that discuses common core and integrating it effectively with new teaching strategies into and ELL classroom called "Collaboration may be the new norm for teachers of ELL students". I feel like this is along the same lines as my topic because it is bringing a new idea into the classroom with some personal examples. The article is geared towards teachers and giving them a new view or approach to try in their classroom or even with a specific student. An example of this is when the teacher is talking about a specific example, the article says, "Ms. Vanden Berg wanted to know what more she could do to help the girl—who was just beginning to learn a few words of English—understand what was going on in her science classroom. 'I don't like when I see students staring off into space when I'm teaching and I know it's because of the language,' said Ms. Vanden Berg." THis is a specific style that is being used throughout the website. There are teachers talking and giving personal information. The audience is also clearly teachers with the type of language that is being used, here is an example, "That discussion was the spark for what has evolved into a much closer collaboration between ESL and content teachers at the 600-student Meadow Park Middle School as they fully embrace the Common Core State Standards in English/language arts and mathematics this academic year". The purpose is to question the classroom and seek change, and example is the following question found in the article, ""This is a major dilemma," she said. "What should the role of the ESL teacher be in this dramatically shifting environment of the common core?" It is also important to remember the writer is not the teacher in this instance, the writer is separate and interviewing a teacher about this article. The article's name and author are "Collaboration may be the new norm for teachers of ELL students
By Lesli A. Maxwell", and the article falls into the opinion section, because the information could be interpreted differently by different teachers.

I think this would be good venue for my second publication because it is specifically for teachers, and i think that is important for topic. I also think there is enough variation in this publication for my article to fit in. The overall theme seems to be searching for new innovative ways to bring ideas into the classroom, and I think that my paper makes a good argument for bringing reader response into the classroom.

Project 2 Revision Plan

I am publishing to EDWeek, which has both a print and online version of the magazine, but there is also a newsletter that goes out to people in education as often as then would wish. This journal is specifically geared to individuals in education whether they are a teacher, administrator or even para-professional, basically anyone in a school that is interacting with students. The articles deal with a wide range of things in the classroom from the new common core standards to activities in and ELL (English Language Learners Classroom). I am going to have my article be more closely tied to the ELL article and how that article was written.

In the article about the ELL classroom the person writing the article is separate from the teacher interacting with the students, but the teacher in the classroom is quoted on classroom practices. From there the writer then comments on how it is effective and what strategies are working best. As I was reading the article it seemed like that hook was seeing how well this worked in the classroom and how it was helping the students, but then the writer went into detail about the logistics of the practice and how it could be manipulated to other ELL classrooms or even general education classes.

When writing my article this is how I want to frame it. I want to pull the reader in initially by showing them how well reader response worked for this student "Matilda" as sort of the outside source. Then move on to show more in depth what reader response is and how it could be applied to other classrooms. I am going to introduce quickly in the beginning what reader response is, because this website is for professionals in education, and I want it to be clear with what I am expecting from the reader response. I am also still going to use the metacognitive strategies and give them a brief definition. However, this time instead of giving abundant amounts of why others have used reader response in other situations. In this article I want to prove to the teachers that it can work through showing them how it can connect to their classroom with the metacognitive strategies, and examples from Mister Pip, as if it were a real classroom, or an example classroom. In the end though, I want the teachers to try and include this as a practice in their classroom.

Final Project Plan

I will be writing 2 articles and 1 info graphic for a PTA news letter. These letters are used to inform parents in the school of events going on, and the parents opinions. Most PTAs put out one news letter a month. It is also expected that these parents are very involved in their children's education because they are volunteering so much time to the association, and children's education.

Usually in the news letters there are letters and articles written by the principles, teachers, and parent volunteers. These articles include information about projects in the classroom, plays, events, and changes in the school.

The primary target of the news letters is to keep parents informed. Parents have a multitude of education, and not very many will know the teacher jargon. Because of this I will be defining a lot of the terms like I did in project 1. My primary purpose is going to be showing parents that common core standards in Language Arts are not sufficient enough for their students. Due to that they should consider using other strategies to help their children build further connections with readings. My first article will show them the metacognitive strategies, and oppose the ideas of David Coleman. My second article will be about incorporating reader response, and why it is important. My info graphic will be a way for parents to easily ask question of their child to deepen their reading in ways that common core does not.

I will use my stance from project 2 using David Coleman's quote to start my argument in my first article. Then I will use the metacognitive strategies from project 1 to show how children need more emotional connections to their readings. For the second article I will use reader response as another way to help students. I will use information form both my first and second paper to create an argument. Then for my info graphic I will use questions that Matilda used to help parents develop questions to ask their children.

The largest difficulty in manipulating my previous texts will be keeping in mind the audience, and making sure that the definitions are clearly given without it sounding remedial. Because I will be writing to parents I want them to understand the information, but I also do not want to make them feel like they are reading instructions for a child.

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